Cambodian Pop -celebrates a rural idyll

YouTube is a great place to explore the musical cultures of different countries. And the music videos tell a lot about the Zeitgeist of the nation. I remain fascinated at the way Cambodian music continues to balance the urban glam against the romantic version of the rural idyll – a simpler wholesome life for which Cambodia pines.

In its dreams.

Cambodia’s upswing in education spending to 2018

Savong Teaching

My friend Savong loves teaching. Here he is in full flight. His school, like those of other NGOs has helped pick up the slack created by government under-spending.

Investing enough in Cambodia’s future? I don’t think so. Until recently Cambodia’s state investment in education has languished. As a percentage of government expenditure, Cambodia spent until recently less than 12% of their total budget. This was ranked 140th in the world – but even then, the figure disguised the fact that the government income and expenditure in Cambodia was not all that high in any case. Education was getting a small slice of a small pie. Since early in the new millennium the numbers have improved slowly.

  • 2010   13.1%
  • 2007   12.4%
  • 2004   10.1%*
    *  Figures from World Data Atlas

Raw percentages are a blunt measure of course. In Singapore the percentage is around 20%, while in Japan, with its relatively ageing population and its excellent existing education infrastructure, the percentage is close to 10%.  Neither nation faces the steep challenges as faced by Cambodia in the past decade, however Cambodia, for a few years, has spent more on its military than it has on schools and teachers.

But that is changing. The education strategic plan, or ESP ratified in 2014 by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport (MoEYS) set out an aggressive boost in education spending, taking the figure north of 20% this year, up to 23.1% in 2017 and towards 26% in 2018.

EDUCATION BUDGET MOEYS

Government plans and budgets are notoriously subject to changes and reality checks. The world economy is flat-lining in 2016, yet the MoEYS strategic development plan has inserted an optimistic growth in GDP of 7.4% for this year, and on this basis projected to increase spending from half a billion US dollars this year – 2016 – to three-quarters of a billion in 2018.

These figures need scrutinising. Where will the dollars go?  Do they keep pace with numbers of enrolments and the laudable plans to introduce upgraded science labs and computer labs – or boosts to teacher training?

Yet the intentions are great, and certainly have flagged the nation’s recognition that it has a burgeoning young population who need investing in.

For more education facts and figures – click here.

 

 

 

 

 

In Cambodia, on a Galaxy not so far away

CAMBO CHARTSMART

One pair of figures from the Asia Foundation study into mobile and internet in Cambodia, sums up the growth of smart-phone usage. In two years smart-phones doubled in market share, and if anything that growth is accelerating. By the end of this year more than half of all mobiles will be smart-phones.

Below we see who is getting the business: Samsung, for now, has half the smart-phone market, spearheaded with its Galaxy phones.

CAMBOCHART1

According to the report smart-phones are becoming increasingly a preferred source of news, weather and information.

Cambodia may have made a late start, but most of the country have skipped landline technology, PC computing and have jumped straight into the possibilities of 4G. A process that took the west at least 5 decades.

For more mobile phone facts and figures – click here.

 

 

Cambodia: phone ownership hits saturation

CAMBOPHONE7

The recent Asia Foundation report shows how rapidly smartphones have become part of the social and business landscape.

One of the most precise indicators of progress in Cambodia is the degree of ownership of telephones – and the percentage of those that are smartphones. No data in this crazy dis-aggregated market can surpass that of a well conducted market research study – and the report compiled for the Asia Foundation Mobile Phones & Internet in Cambodia 2015   is a great thorough study that surprised me in a couple of areas. The main points:

  • Mobile phone ownership has basically reached saturation.  99% of adults 18-65 own a mobile.
  • The market is dominated by low-end budget phones as well as by showy high-end phones that convey status, while mid range phones under-perform in this market.
  • Smart phones have doubled in share from 20% of all phones in 2013 to 40% by the end of 2015.
  • Khmer enabled phones are now dominant. They made up 30% of phones in 2013 but now account for 63% of Cambodian phones.

The Khmerisation of mobile –  which was technically enabled just a decade ago, has a profound effect potentially. Instead of adapting around English for texting or for online behaviour, Cambodians can do it in their mother language.

I wonder if this simple fact will dampen the seemingly universal desire among young people to learn English. What do you think?

CAMBOCHART2

 

 

 

 

 

CAMBOCHART3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For more on modernisation click here Growth of FaceBook in Cambodia or here  The Electric Village.

Smart-phones: on a Galaxy not so far away.

I hope you find this blog useful and interesting. Let us know if there is any Cambodian topic you’d like to see covered.

Debt and poverty in Cambodia

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The photo of offerings, above, is one I took during Pchum Benh in 2015 near Siem Reap. I’ve been fascinated time and again by how consumer goods are such a price in Cambodia, relative to incomes, that cigarettes are often sold individually, at least in rural markets, rather than in packs. When you choose to buy one cigarette at a time, there is a thin line between solvency and debt.

I’ve been considering lately how poor Cambodians can climb out of poverty. There is a universal desire to get ahead, but there are no easy avenues to wealth for the poor to travel. Lenders who might advance some capital, for example through a MFI or micro-finance institution are not just lending against the ability of a borrower to give their business venture their very all; they are also lending against the high tide of risks faced by lower income people who live, daily, on the precipice of disaster. A crop failure. A stolen motorbike. An illness. Westerners are well insulated from such set-backs, we have insurances or sufficient economic resilience to take these things in our stride.

MFIs also face another risk – and that is the prospect that the borrower, desperate to raise enough capital to start a thriving business, already has loans with other micro-finance organisations. The risk isn’t about dishonesty so much as about financial literacy. The hopeful entrepreneur can only see the upside without appreciating the very high risks they face.

This is causing concern for micro-finance institutions of which there are around 45 registered organisations that are signatories to a shared set of operating principles and are members of a well-respected industry association, the Cambodia Micro-finance Association.  Together these MFIs have lent to 1.8 million borrowers, which is around one in every five adults aged 22+ – a staggering number.

Or it may be less staggering, given that a significant proportion of borrowers appear to have loans from more than one MFI (which is a practice actively discouraged by the lenders themselves.) Some of these are savvy borrowers, calling into question the idea of ‘one client: one loan.’

But not all borrowers are in this boat. Some are taking out extra loans because they are having trouble meeting existing debts.

Just as troubling, a report cited in The Guardian in March 2015, conducted by the Institute of Development, found that half the borrowers had taken such measures as eating less, or eating poor quality food in order to meet their repayments. Talk about a thin line between solvency and debt.

MFIs are adapting to the changing marketplace, but a general conclusion drawn from a 2007 Stanford Social Innovation Review study, by Aneel Karnani, into the effectiveness of micro-finance concluded that the service works for those above the poverty line, but often fails – deeply – when it comes to serving the needs of those below the line.

If the MFIs are adjusting to the market, and serving a growing class of more financially savvy customers (only a 15 years ago banks were having trouble attracting retail customers who had lost everything under previous regimes,) there is another problem in the sector: the unregistered lenders of which, there are estimated to be 60 in operation, and that’s not counting the traditional pawn-brokers in Cambodia.

In fact the Government’s financial strategy blueprint Financial Sector Development Strategy 2011-2020 ,expressly tasks the Cambodian Micro-finance Association (CMA) with bringing rogue operators under their umbrella and developing stronger consumer-friendly rules with which to self-govern members as well as introducing financial literacy programs to help educate the public.

The regulation of pawn brokers and money lenders is a harder task, but the Financial Sector strategy has these operators in their sights. Again there will be a focus on developing rules that help protect borrowers from over-zealous lending, or the onerous penalties of repayment failure. A frequent practice right now is to use farmland as collateral, and if a borrower gets behind, well, they lose everything.

Getting ahead usually requires capital. Unfortunately for the very poor, the best lenders may be of some benefit, but the marketplace is full of dangers. I think Risk is a concept about which every student needs to be taught. Some education may help keep some more people on the right side of that thin line.

Poverty porn. It’s not okay.

photojournalist

Big applause to of the Phnom Penh Post for her article this last week on ‘poverty porn.’ and the murky ethics of poverty fundraising.  She wrote when Weh Yeoh, the director of OIC Cambodia, tweeted the images from an Australian fundraising ad that portrayed young children, Cambodian, as trafficked and homeless. The photos positively rubbed the readers’ noses in the children’s shame.“I’m pretty sure this breaches all kinds of standards around positive portrayal of children,” he wrote.logo_ppp It turned out the children in the adverts were child models, dirtied up and paid to look like victims – and the fundraising agency said the imagery had kickstarted a very successful fundraising campaign. They were angry to be called out by the media, and went on to attack critic via twitter, arguing that donors don’t respond to images of happy, employed children.

On that front I disagree, and I base my opinion on market research I’ve expressly carried out for the charitable sector which tested various children-need-your-help scenarios – without pictures.

But that’s hardly the issue. The main focus of the criticism was about ‘poverty porn’ and the portrayal of disadvantaged children for gain – whether charitable or otherwise.

“The ’80s are calling – they want their pics of fly-covered starving African children back,” wrote Celia Boyd of Phnom Penh’s SHE Investments, on Twitter, in response to the recent advertising.  “Just because it raises money, it doesn’t make it right,” said fellow Australian Leigh Mathews, of Re/Think Orphanage.  (I’m citing the PPP piece here.)

The ethics of how we use images of poverty is a blurry topic. Last week I taught a local high-school class in New Zealand and we discussed just this issue, and Exhibit A were a stack of slides I’d taken – photos of poor people in Cambodia.  Creepy or okay? I asked.

The students were really clear. If I knew the person being photographed, and if I asked for permission – then it was okay. “You have to be respectful.” one student told me.

What about if it was a poor person whom I saw on the street, or near a temple where I was taking photographs?  “Then don’t zoom in on them,” was the answer.

The core principle is respect, privacy and dignity.  I don’t buy that the portrayal of victims, whether actual or made-up, is the right way to go.

Anyone have any thoughts on the issue?