Cambodia’s upswing in education spending to 2018

Savong Teaching

My friend Savong loves teaching. Here he is in full flight. His school, like those of other NGOs has helped pick up the slack created by government under-spending.

Investing enough in Cambodia’s future? I don’t think so. Until recently Cambodia’s state investment in education has languished. As a percentage of government expenditure, Cambodia spent until recently less than 12% of their total budget. This was ranked 140th in the world – but even then, the figure disguised the fact that the government income and expenditure in Cambodia was not all that high in any case. Education was getting a small slice of a small pie. Since early in the new millennium the numbers have improved slowly.

  • 2010   13.1%
  • 2007   12.4%
  • 2004   10.1%*
    *  Figures from World Data Atlas

Raw percentages are a blunt measure of course. In Singapore the percentage is around 20%, while in Japan, with its relatively ageing population and its excellent existing education infrastructure, the percentage is close to 10%.  Neither nation faces the steep challenges as faced by Cambodia in the past decade, however Cambodia, for a few years, has spent more on its military than it has on schools and teachers.

But that is changing. The education strategic plan, or ESP ratified in 2014 by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport (MoEYS) set out an aggressive boost in education spending, taking the figure north of 20% this year, up to 23.1% in 2017 and towards 26% in 2018.

EDUCATION BUDGET MOEYS

Government plans and budgets are notoriously subject to changes and reality checks. The world economy is flat-lining in 2016, yet the MoEYS strategic development plan has inserted an optimistic growth in GDP of 7.4% for this year, and on this basis projected to increase spending from half a billion US dollars this year – 2016 – to three-quarters of a billion in 2018.

These figures need scrutinising. Where will the dollars go?  Do they keep pace with numbers of enrolments and the laudable plans to introduce upgraded science labs and computer labs – or boosts to teacher training?

Yet the intentions are great, and certainly have flagged the nation’s recognition that it has a burgeoning young population who need investing in.

For more education facts and figures – click here.

 

 

 

 

 

Are girls lagging behind in the Cambodian school system?

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A long-held concern with the re-emergence of the Cambodian education system has been the worry that girls are being disadvantaged, perhaps for reasons of tradition (is it the girl’s place is to look after younger siblings?) and possibly for systemic reasons: for example more male teachers.

Well, the Ministry’s figures suggest girls are doing virtually as well as boys, overall, though are clearly disadvantaged in at least half a dozen of Cambodia’s provinces.

MOEYS (The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport,) has in its most recent census (2013) of school attendance measured the number of students who have successfully graduated past 3 goal-posts: Grade 6, 9 and 12 (which mark the completion grades for Primary, Lower Secondary and Secondary schools.)

Of those students who pass at each level, what percentage are girls? The answer, 49% for the lower grades, and 48% for Grade 12.

In other words almost exactly half of all students. A great result. More than this; the figures are almost identical when we compare Urban schools with Rural schools. Here are the MOEYS statistics.

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In half a dozen provinces, (I’ve indicated these in oranges and red) however, there is room for improvement and the Ministry, to it’s credit, is working to ensure gender equality within the education system.

For more fresh data about Education in Cambodia:

In Cambodia a Primary Teacher to pupil ratio of 1 to 47

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One metric that helps illustrate how much attention a nation is giving to education is the teacher-to-student ratio. Recently South East Asia Globe magazine ran an article by Frédéric Janssens who had gathered the best available data on teacher ratios across SE Asia. This was for primary schools. Alas, Cambodian children fare not just worst, but worse by a wide margin even compared to near neighbours Myanmar and Laos.

This is a problem, and it is not helped by a shortage of primary teachers in part because they are paid very poorly. Many professional teachers have opted to teach in secondary schools instead. The problem is not just that primary schools get a skinnier slice of the education spend, but that the pie itself is woefully small even when expressed as a percentage of the Government’s overall spend.

While Singapore’s government invests almost one dollar in every four into education, the Cambodian government allocates just one dollar in every 8*, and that’s despite the burgeoning number of children in the school-age cohort.

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The figures date from 2010-2012.

For more on the subject of Cambodian primary teachers and their pay – click here.

Savong’s School plans to open Primary School classes in October 2014 and the plan is to limit classes to so students per teacher. For more about these plans click here.

For Cambodian education spending projections, 2014-2018, click here.

* These figures suggest 12.4% of Government spending. Comparative UNESCO figures suggest 13.5% of Cambodia’s GDP.